Quando surgiram os 8 princípios dos dados abertos?

Dados abertos são definidos por um conjunto de princípios estabelecidos num encontro realizado nos dias 7 e 8 de dezembro de 2007 em Sebastopol, na Califórnia, que reuniu um pesquisadores, representantes de organizações da sociedade civil e ativistas norte-americanos.

sebastopol-davidorban-groupe

Entre eles estavam Lawrence Lessig, famoso criador do termo “cultura livre”; Tim O’Reilly, publisher de editora da área de tecnologia da informação que leva seu sobrenome e criador da expressão “Web 2.0”; Ethan Zuckermann, diretor do Center of Civic Media MIT e criador do Trip Advisor;  Joseph Hall, Center for Democracy & Technology; Aaron Schwartz, conhecido ativista hacker, cuja vida é retratada no filme “The Internet’s Own Boy”, além dos fundadores de organizações Sunlight Foundation, My Society e GovTrack – pioneiras no uso dos dados abertos na promoção da transparência.

open-data-dados-abertos

O foco do encontro foi a abertura de informações governamentais. No entanto, nos anos que se seguiram, o conceito passou a ter seu uso ampliado, passando a incluir dados científicos ou mesmo de organizações privadas. Seus princípios afirmam que qualquer dado para ser “aberto” deve ser utilizado por qualquer um para qualquer propósito. Tal definição visa orientar o processo de abertura de dados de modo que possa ser considerado “aberto”.

Os princípios criados por eles dão conta, com bastante simplicidade, dos principais componentes para que um dado seja considerado “aberto” e se tornaram referência internacional:

Os 8 Princípios dos dados abertos

Completo

Todos os dados públicos devem ser disponibilizados. Dados públicos são dados que não estão sujeitos a restrições de privacidade, segurança ou privilégios de acesso.

Primários

Os dados devem ser coletados na fonte com o maior nível de detalhamento possível, e não de forma agregada ou modificada.

Oportunidade

Sua disponibilidade deve ser feita tão rapidamente quanto necessário para preservar o valor dos dados.

Acessibilidade

Os dados devem estar disponíveis para a mais ampla gama de usuários e as mais diversas finalidades.

Processável por máquinas

Os dados devem ser razoavelmente estruturados de modo a permitir o processamento automatizado.

Não-discriminatório

Os dados devem estar disponíveis para qualquer pessoa, sem necessidade de registro.

Não-proprietário

Os dados devem estar disponíveis em um formato sobre o qual nenhuma entidade tem o controle exclusivo.

Licença livre

Os dados não estão sujeitos a quaisquer direitos de autor, patentes, marcas comerciais ou regulamento secreto. Pode ser permitida uma razoável privacidade e restrições de privilégio e segurança.

Sem dúvida, esse foi um encontro histórico. Conseguiu-se reunir mentes brilhantes. Não por acaso que o encontro resultou na mudança das concepções “convencionais” do chamado governo eletrônico – um termo que está mais ligado à pestação de serviços do que à abertura de informação.

Do velho governo eletrônico saltamos um novo paradigma, dos dados abertos – mais adequado à filosofia do software livre, à cultura hacker e à concepções mais modernas de transparência.

 

Jorge Machado
COLAB/USP

 

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