Achados Preliminares sobre o Monitoramento Cidadão da Merenda no Pará

Esse mês finalmente concluímos dois documentos relatando nossos achados iniciais sobre a Segunda Fase do projeto Monitorando a Cidade.

Com o apoio do Instituto Humanitas360, a Segunda Fase começou no segundo semestre de 2016 com o objetivo de compreender melhor o uso do Monitorando em campo. Ao longo de 12 meses nós trabalhamos com o Centro de Mídias Cívicas do MIT, o Observatório Social de Belém, o Projeto SOL, a Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA) e a Controladoria Geral da União (CGU) para documentar três iniciativas de monitoramento cidadão no estado do Pará, onde a ferramenta foi mais usada.

Os três casos acompanhados ocorreram em três cidades distintas e fizeram o monitoramento da qualidade da merenda servida em escolas públicas. Apesar de ser um dos maiores e mais amplos do mundo, o Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar (PNAE) ainda enfrenta diversos desafios em múltiplos níveis de implementação, deixando estudantes ao redor do país com merendas inadequadas ou mesmo ausentes.

Somando as três iniciativas, a merenda foi monitorada em 28 escolas, que totalizam mais de 26 mil estudantes matriculados. Sendo que cada caso envolveu um conjunto único de fatores e abordagens para buscar melhorias na consistência e qualidade das merendas.

Abaixo estão algumas de nossas principais observações advindas de nossas três visitas ao Pará, realizando grupos focais e entrevistas com membros das organizações parceiras, estudantes, professoras, gestores, merendeiras, representantes do Ministério Público, CGU, Secretaria de Educação do Estado e Conselho Escolar.

Resultados para a merenda
Participantes de várias escolas relataram melhorias na preparação, armazenamento e na qualidade dos ingredientes das merendas servidas como resultado da campanha de monitoramento. Gestores das escolas, em alguns casos, ficaram mais atentos às entregas de alimentos, recusando alimentos fora do prazo de validade ou próximos do vencimento, além de buscarem melhorias de higiene e organização das salas de armazenamento do estoque.

Maior compreensão da merenda como um direito
Em todos os casos os estudantes relataram um melhor entendimento sobre o PNAE e seus direitos quanto à merenda. Muitos sentiram que esse entendimento colaborou para incentivá-los a mobilizar sobre a questão.

Maior curiosidade e engajamento por parte dos estudantes
Alguns professores e gestores afirmaram que os estudantes envolvidos nas campanhas demonstraram uma maior vontade de expandir o monitoramento para outros desafios na escola, chegando a mobilizá-los a participar de atividades de manutenção da escola.

Monitoramento cidadão como uma ferramenta de aprendizagem
Particularmente na UFPA, as experiências com o Monitorando ofereceram uma nova perspectiva sobre seu uso de maneira pedagógica, criativa e crítica para a criação de novos modelos de monitoramento de serviços públicos. Para muitos estudantes, os projetos de monitoramento foram a primeira vez em que puderam aplicar esse tipo de conhecimento fora da sala de aula, evidenciando grande motivação em poder aplicar seus conhecimentos teóricos em interações reais com outros cidadãos. Para a CGU, a ferramenta ofereceu uma maneira de testar em maior escala um formato de iniciativa que a interessava, mas que ainda não tinha tido a oportunidade de implementar.

O poder de parcerias intersetoriais para o monitoramento
Em Santarém e Belém, as abordagens para monitoramento desenvolvidas pelos organizadores das campanhas envolveram a colaboração ativa entre sociedade civil, agências de controle governamentais e, no caso de Belém, a comunidade acadêmica. Os participantes sentiram que essas parcerias foram maneiras poderosas de reunir habilidades, conhecimento e redes em busca de resolver os complexos desafios compartilhados.

O valor da colaboração com agências de controle governamental
Nos três casos, o MP ou a CGU tiveram um papel fundamental como receptores das informações e articuladores para a resolução dos problemas. Apesar de na Primeira Fase do projeto as agências governamentais não terem sido imaginadas como colaboradoras na implementação de campanhas, essa parceria tem se mostrado benéfica para todos os envolvidos.

Desenvolvimento e consolidação de parcerias
O desenvolvimento e implementação de campanhas proveu oportunidades para novas parcerias e fortalecimento das relações existentes. Quanto às escolas, entrevistados relataram uma aproximação entre estudantes, merendeiras, professores, gestoras, MP e poder executivo, como resultado das campanhas. No nível organizacional, as iniciativas possibilitaram a atores já próximos o desenvolvimento de um projeto concreto pela primeira vez.

Tecnologia auxiliando a escalar, agilizar e dar visibilidade
Tanto participantes como organizadores das campanhas sentiram que a plataforma permitiu a eles conseguir uma maior escala, economizar tempo e atrair a atenção de novos participantes e da mídia. Estudantes que já haviam usado Facebook para documentar a merenda sentiram que o Monitorando proveu maior credibilidade à informação coletada. Diversos atores afirmaram o poder das imagens para mobilizar o público e provocar reações pela busca de soluções.

Esses trechos foram extraídos do sumário da Segunda Fase, do qual também temos uma versão em inglês. Estes documentos sumarizam os três casos acompanhados, ocorridos nas cidades de Santarém, Ponta de Pedras e Belém. Além disso, também temos um relatório que analisa em maior profundidade os casos de Santarém e Ponta de Pedras, iniciados antes do de Belém.

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